Pollution in Russia increases with economic growth, but only until it reaches a certain threshold, from where it begins to decrease, shows a recent study by Professor Natalya Ketenci, Yeditepe University, Turkey.
The validity of the phenomenon, recognized as the environmental Kuznets curve, demonstrates promising progress for environmental policies and practices in the Russian Federation. Posted in Open Access Russian Journal of Economics, the study also seeks to identify the relationships and causality between pollution, quantified by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and the main factors that affect them.
To do this, the author uses annual data on energy consumption, real income, international trade, level of education and level of urbanization for the period 1991-2016, available in the database World Bank Development Indicators. Accordingly, the research paper provides recommendations to policy makers in Russia responsible for environmental quality at the national level.
According to the data, Russia remains the fourth largest contributor in terms of CO2 emissions in the world after China, the United States and India in terms of total kilotonnes, but leads the United States when gross domestic product ( GDP) is taken into account. While the United States contributes 0.33 kg of CO2 emissions per 2010 dollar of GDP, Russia accounts for 0.99 kg. In addition, despite the global trend to reduce annual CO2 emissions, Russia continues to increase its own.
It is interesting to note that while Russia has increased its global CO2 emissions by 14% since 1998 (8% since 2009), its quantity actually turns out to have decreased by 45.6% (7.3% since 2009). if we consider the GDP. In line with the Kuznets environmental curve hypothesis, this is due to the gradual deployment of more environmentally friendly equipment in a growing economy.
By studying the main factors of pollution, Professor Natalya Ketenci concludes that energy consumption, real income, education and levels of urbanization are all important determinants and that open trade has no impact.
In conclusion, the researcher suggests that policymakers in Russia should continue to implement policies aimed at supporting economic development, thereby promoting cleaner technologies.
Efforts to raise public awareness of the environment are also a priority. Interestingly, if education in Russia is linked to better access to advanced but energy-intensive technology, it is through education that people can be motivated to improve the quality of the environment. and thus persuaded to practices such as recycling and abandoning non-renewable products.
A rather ambiguous effect on environmental pollution is also found in the case of urbanization. Although generally linked to the increase in CO2 emissions resulting from a larger and denser population, improving the organization of recycling and hygiene provisions in urban areas plays in favor of the quality of the water. ‘environment. Therefore, the author recommends that the focus be for urban areas on maintaining current policies and decreasing energy intensity, while in rural areas it is important to implement new environmental policies. effective.
Environmental policy, pollution and economic growth
Natalya Ketenci, The Kuznets Environmental Curve in the Case of Russia, Russian Journal of Economics (2018). DOI: 10.3897 / j.ruje.4.28482
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